Electrical Studies

Electrical Studies are classified into:

  • Power system studies
  • Load flow studies
  • Relay Co-ordination study
  • Arc Flash Study

Power System Studies

Power System Studies must be performed before specifying or purchasing an equipment. Power System Studies include analysis of over-current coordination, load flow, short circuit, arc flash hazard and motor starting studies. The result of the analysis is then used for specifying equipment ratings. Power System Studies must be performed with keeping in mind the following,

  • Design a safe system
  • Standardize equipment sizing and protection methods
  • Limit bus voltage drops to 5–8% under maximum load conditions and to 15–20% during large motor starting
  • Set overcurrent devices to protect equipment from damage
  • Selectively shut down sections of the power system in response to a system disturbance
  • Limit arc fault energy levels to 40 cal/cm² or below

When analysing an existing electrical distribution system, the need to perform a load flow or motor-starting study is diminished. At this point, unless there is an obvious loading or motor-starting problem such as transformers running hot, low voltage under normal or motor-starting conditions, or motors failing prematurely, the effort should be focused in the areas of short circuit, overcurrent coordination, and arc flash. These studies are all life safety related, and if problems are found, they must be rectified immediately.

Our engineers can perform the following Electrical Power System Studies

  • Harmonic Analysis
  • Short circuit Study

Load Flow Studies

It is the analysis of the normal steady state operation of a power system. Load Flow Studies involve calculation of voltage drop on each feeder, voltage at each bus, power flow and losses in all branch and feeder circuits. The study determines if the system voltages remain within specified limits under normal or emergency conditions and also evaluates whether equipment like generator, transformers and conductors are overloaded.

Key applications of load flow studies include:

  • Voltage regulation: Ensuring that voltage levels at each bus remain within acceptable limits, preventing damage to equipment and ensuring reliable power delivery.
  • Loss minimization: Identifying areas of high power losses and implementing strategies to reduce them, improving overall system efficiency.
  • Contingency analysis: Assessing the impact of potential equipment failures or outages on the system's ability to maintain stable operation.
  • Expansion planning: Determining the capacity of existing infrastructure to handle future load growth and identifying areas where reinforcement is needed.

Relay Coordination

In general, there are two or more series protective devices between the fault point and the power supply and these devices must be coordinated to make sure that the device nearest the fault point operates first. Other upstream devices must be designed in order to operate in sequence for providing back-up protection, in case if any of the devices fails. This is called ‘Selective Coordination’. To meet this requirement, the devices must be rated or set to operate on minimum overcurrent, in lesser time, and must be selective with the other devices too.

Maximum protection to equipment, production process & personnel can be accomplished if these criteria are met. Protection and coordination are often in direct opposition with each other. Protection may have to be sacrificed for coordination, and vice versa. iFluids, over the years, have gained experience in designing optimum coordination and protection.

Key Applications of Relay Coordination:

  1. Fault Isolation: Relay coordination ensures that only the faulty section of the electrical system is isolated, minimizing disruption to unaffected areas.
  2. System Stability: Properly coordinated protective devices prevent cascading outages and maintain overall system stability during fault conditions.
  3. Equipment Protection: Relay coordination protects electrical equipment from damage caused by prolonged fault currents.
  4. Selective Tripping: It ensures that only the nearest protective device to the fault operates, avoiding unnecessary tripping of upstream devices.
  5. Reduced Outage Time: Faster fault isolation leads to shorter outage durations and quicker restoration of power supply.

Arc Flash Study

When a flash over of electric current leaves its original path and travels in the air from one conductor to another or to ground, Arc Flash happens, which may often turn violent and may also cause injury or death when a human is in close proximity.

The causes of Arc Flash may vary from corrosion, dust, accidental touching, faulty installation, condensation, dropping of tools, material failure, etc., Worker’s proximity to the hazard, Temperature, Time of circuit break are the top important factors that determine the severity of an arc flash injury.

An Arc Flash may cause fire (could spread rapidly through buildings), simple burns (Non-FR clothing can burn onto skin), blast pressure (upwards of 2,000 lbs./sq.ft), heat (upward of 35,000 degrees F), sound blast (noise can reach 140 dB – loud as a gun) and dangerous flying objects (often molten metal).

Key Applications of Arc Flash Studies:

  1. Hazard Identification: Arc flash studies identify potential arc flash hazards within an electrical system, allowing for targeted mitigation measures.
  2. Risk Assessment: They quantify the severity of arc flash hazards by determining the arc flash boundary and incident energy levels.
  3. PPE Requirements: The study results inform the selection of appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) for personnel working in hazardous areas.
  4. Hazard Labeling: Arc flash hazard labels are placed on equipment to warn workers of potential risks and guide their safety precautions.
  5. Training Programs: The study findings are used to develop training programs that educate personnel on arc flash hazards and safe work practices.

We have developed specific approach boundaries for protecting personnel while also working on or near energized equipment. These boundaries are Flash Protection Boundary (outer boundary), Limited Approach, Restricted Approach and Prohibited Approach (inner boundary).

Elixir Engineering offer first-class technical consulting to prevent hazards and recommend various proven protective methods including de-energizing the circuit, work practices, complete insulation, guarding, barricades, ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) and grounding (secondary protection).

  • Thermography Analysis
  • Lux Assessment study
  • Lightning protection study
  • Grid Islanding study
  • Harmonic Analysis
  • Short circuit analysis.
  • Transient stability analysis
  • Load sharing feasibility study
  • Earthing calculation
  • Load Flow Analysis
  • Relay Coordination Studies
  • Energy Audit
  • Harmonic Analysis
  • Power Factor Correction
  • Power Quality Studies
  • Short Circuit Co-Ordination Studies
  • Load Growth Impact Study
  • Residual Life Assessment
  • Load Flow Analysis
  • Motor Start Transient Studies
  • Harmonic Penetration Studies
  • Motor Start Transient Studies
  • Load Shedding System Studies
  • System Stability Analysis
  • Grid Islanding Schemes

Elixir Engineering

Elixir Engineering is a multi-disciplinary Engineering services company.
With our strong technical team, we have proven to be effective for our Clients.
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