Power System Studies
Power System Studies must be performed before specifying or purchasing an equipment. Power System Studies include analysis of over-current coordination, load flow, short circuit, arc flash hazard and motor starting studies. The result of the analysis is then used for specifying equipment ratings. Power System Studies must be performed with keeping in mind the following,
When analysing an existing electrical distribution system, the need to perform a load flow or motor-starting study is diminished. At this point, unless there is an obvious loading or motor-starting problem such as transformers running hot, low voltage under normal or motor-starting conditions, or motors failing prematurely, the effort should be focused in the areas of short circuit, overcurrent coordination, and arc flash. These studies are all life safety related, and if problems are found, they must be rectified immediately.
Our engineers can perform the following Electrical Power System Studies
Load Flow Studies
It is the analysis of the normal steady state operation of a power system. Load Flow Studies involve calculation of voltage drop on each feeder, voltage at each bus, power flow and losses in all branch and feeder circuits. The study determines if the system voltages remain within specified limits under normal or emergency conditions and also evaluates whether equipment like generator, transformers and conductors are overloaded.
In general, there are two or more series protective devices between the fault point and the power supply and these devices must be coordinated to make sure that the device nearest the fault point operates first. Other upstream devices must be designed in order to operate in sequence for providing back-up protection, in case if any of the devices fails. This is called ‘Selective Coordination’. To meet this requirement, the devices must be rated or set to operate on minimum overcurrent, in lesser time, and must be selective with the other devices too. Maximum protection to equipment, production process & personnel can be accomplished if these criteria are met. Protection and coordination are often in direct opposition with each other. Protection may have to be sacrificed for coordination, and vice versa. iFluids, over the years, have gained experience in designing optimum coordination and protection.
Arc Flash Study
When a flash over of electric current leaves its original path and travels in the air from one conductor to another or to ground, Arc Flash happens, which may often turn violent and may also cause injury or death when a human is in close proximity.
The causes of Arc Flash may vary from corrosion, dust, accidental touching, faulty installation, condensation, dropping of tools, material failure, etc., Worker’s proximity to the hazard, Temperature, Time of circuit break are the top important factors that determine the severity of an arc flash injury. An Arc Flash may cause fire (could spread rapidly through buildings), simple burns (Non-FR clothing can burn onto skin), blast pressure (upwards of 2,000 lbs./sq.ft), heat (upward of 35,000 degrees F), sound blast (noise can reach 140 dB – loud as a gun) and dangerous flying objects (often molten metal).
We have developed specific approach boundaries for protecting personnel while also working on or near energized equipment. These boundaries are Flash Protection Boundary (outer boundary), Limited Approach, Restricted Approach and Prohibited Approach (inner boundary).
We offer first-class technical consulting to prevent hazards and recommend various proven protective methods including de-energizing the circuit, work practices, complete insulation, guarding, barricades, ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) and grounding (secondary protection).